坦克世界法系三级轻坦“AMX38”发展史

  Yuri Pasholok wrote an interesting post about the AMX 38, so sit down, have a cup of coffee or lunch and let’s have a look at it :)

  Yuri Pasholok(怎么老是你/how old r U)投稿了一篇关于AMX38的的文章,坐下来,喝杯豆浆,或者吃个早餐,然后慢慢看吧。

  Apart from the companies Hotchkiss, Renault and FCM, AMX too participated in the program to create the next generation light tank for the French army. Atelier de Construction d’Issy-les-Moulineaux (AMX for short) was located south of Paris – it consisted of the former Renault tank plant, nationalized in 1936 and was the last company to enter the competition. Their tank project, later recieving the designation of AMX 38, was introduced in July 1937.

  除了哈奇开斯,雷诺和FCM,AMX公司也参加了为法国军队设计下一代轻坦的工作。Atelier de Construction d’Issy-les-Moulineaux(伊希莱姆利诺工厂,简称AMX)位于巴黎南部,他曾经是雷诺的坦克工厂,由1936年变成国有并且是最后一家参加竞争的公司。他们的坦克计划,之后被命名为AMX 38,于1937年设计出来。

1

  The main idea behind the tank, as concieved by its designers during the project stage, was to increase the vehicle mobility, all the while keeping the light anti-shell armor (40mm) the same and the weight increase to a minimum. The first prototype weighed 13,5 tons (heavier than another project of the same program, FCM 36, by 1,15 tons) – this weight did later make some historians to in fact designate this tank as a medium vehicle.

  这辆坦克的设计时的思想,是在有着能够防御炮弹的装甲(40mm)情况下,增加车辆的移动能力,并尽量减少重量(比同一个项目的另一个设计,FCM 36要重1.15吨)。这个重量在后来被历史学家认为其实这是一辆中型坦克的重量。

  On the other hand, even with the 100 horsepower CLM diesel, assumed by the initial project, the dynamics of the AMX 38 only slightly surpassed the ones of the FCM 36 (power-to-weight ratio of 7,4 hp/t, compared to FCM’s 7,36). As for the built vehicle however, that one was equipped with a 130hp Aster engine, increasing the power-to-weight ratio to 9,62 hp/t. By that increase, this perspective tank surprassed its entire competition (Renault R 35 with its 7,73, Hotchkiss H 35 with its 7,07 and Hotchkiss H 39 with its 9,3 hp/t).

  在另一方面,尽管装备了最初使用的100马力的CLM柴油发动机,AMX38的动力还是比FCM36要稍高一点(功重比为7.4马力/吨,FCM为7.36马力/吨)。但是在做出整车的时候更是采用了130马力的阿斯特发动机,使得功重比达到了9.62马力/吨。拜其所赐,此车的推重比超过了其他的竞争车辆(雷诺R35是7.73,哈奇开斯H35 是7.07而哈奇开斯H39是9.3马力/吨)。

  The initial project counted on the installation of the 37mm SA18 gun (the same gun as FT-17, R 35, H 35 and FCM 36 had) and the first project variant (drawing 0-190 from 23.3.1939) assumed the installation of the APX-R turret. However, as early as June 1938, the turret was already replaced by a design of AMX’s own making, somewhat resembling the turret of FCM 36. The armament remained the same, as can be seen on the 0-190 drawing from 10.10.1938.

  最初时候坦克要求装备37mm SA18火炮(和FT17,R35,G35和FCM36用的是同一门炮),并且在初期型(0-190号图纸,绘制于39年3月23日)装备有APX-R炮塔。到了38年6月,炮塔换成了AMX自己设计的,和FCM36的有些像。武器没有变,和38年绘制的0-190号图纸一样。

1

  AMX 38 with APX-R turret, drawing 0-190, 23.3.1939

  装备APX-R的AMX38,图纸编号0-190,39年3月23日绘制

1

  Side view and suspension schematics, drawing 0-155, 13.6.1938.

  侧视图以及悬挂图,图纸编号0-155,1938年6月13日绘制

1

  Hull, drawing 0-250, 3.4.1939

  车体,图纸编号0-250,1939年4月3日绘制

1

  The first prototype of the AMX 38, built by the end of 1939, differed in a lot of ways from the initial project. The vehicle with the registration number W 0231 was equipped with a 37mm SA38 gun, paired with a 7,5mm MAC Mle.1931 machinegun. Like other French light tanks, AMX 38 had a “tail” mounted on the rear side of the hull, its purpose being to help the vehicle cross infantry trenches.

  第一辆AMX38的原型车建于1939年的年末,和最初的设计相比已经改变了很多。这辆注册号码为W 0231的车辆装备一门37mm SA38火炮,以及一挺7.5mm MAC 1931式机枪。和其他法国轻坦一样,AMX38也有一个“尾巴”,装在车体的后面,可以帮助坦克翻过步兵战壕。

1

1

1

  The maximum speed of this vehicle was 25 km/h. This was not exactly the fastest vehicle on the battlefield, but on the other hand, it was completely sufficient for its intended role of supporting advancing infantry. In the end however, the prototype was not regarded as something, that should be mass-produced. AMX 38 stayed already behind other contemporary French tanks both in armor and armament. As such, the AMX company continued to work further and as early as in December 1939, a new vehicle began to take shape in the form of Char Leger Serie (something like “serial (mass-produced) light tank”). It’s sometimes being called AMX 39, but this designation is not very correct, as the vehicle continued to be developed well into the spring of 1940.

  这辆坦克的急速是25km/h。这在战场上可称不上最快的车辆,但是从另一方面来说,支援进攻步兵作战的话,这速度的确是够了。最后,这辆坦克还是没有被认为是可以量产的坦克。AMX 38 在装甲上和武备上已经弱于其他的法国坦克。所以,AMX公司于39年12月便早早开始了他们的发展计划,一辆新车开始在图纸上按照 Char Leger Serie(大意是量产型轻型坦克)的形式成型。这个车有时候被称作AMX39,但是这个代号可不对,因为这车到了40年春天仍在开发。

  Char Leger Serie, drawing 0-326, 11.12.1939

  量产型轻型坦克,图纸编号0-326,1939年12月11日绘制

1

  Improved AMX 38 hull, drawing 0-395, 14.3.1940

  改进型AMX38车体,图纸编号0-395,1940年3月14日绘制

1

  Gun, mounted in a modernized AMX 38 turret, drawing 0-339, 27.12.1939

  装在改进型AMX38炮塔上的火炮,图纸编号0-339,1939年12月27日绘制

1

  The first significant difference between CLS and AMX 38 was the installation of the 47mm SA35 gun, replacing the older 37mm. With such a gun, the tank became significantly more dangerous to its enemies, including any German tank of that period. Additionally, the frontal turret and hull armor was increased to 60mm, making the standard German 37mm PaK practically useless against this vehicle.

  第一个很大的改变是CLS装备有47mm SA35火炮,用于替换之前的37mm。更换主炮之后,这辆坦克对于他的敌人来说更加的危险,尤其是当年的德军。再加上,前装甲和炮塔装甲增加至60mm,德国人的37mm PaK完全不能与其对抗。

  Of course, this reflected on the vehicle weight, that grew to 16,5 tons. The suspension also had to be reworked and the vehicle was planned to run with a more powerful engine (also Aster) of 160 horsepower. Thanks the the new engine, the power-to-weight ratio also grew a bit to 9,69 hp/t. The ending result was a light infantry tank, roughly equal to the British Valentine – not very fast, but well armored with a gun to match. True, the old flawed concept of one man turret, where the commander is also the gunner, loader and radioman would have impaired its effectiveness. But that’s all just a speculation, as no prototype of this improved AMX 38 was ever built.

  当然,这些改进反映到整车上,重量增加了16.5吨。悬挂也重新制作并且坦克也计划安装更加强力的引擎,有160马力。因为新引擎的缘故,功重比还多了一点,达到9.69马力/吨。最终的结果是这辆坦克是一辆轻型步兵坦克,和英国的瓦伦丁差不多 - 不太快,但是装甲不错,并且还有与其相应的主炮。当然,缺点是老旧的单人炮塔设计,车长也是炮手,装填手,以及通信员,不然的话应该可以更加的有效率。不过这些都是推测,因为最终AMX38的改进型并没有被造出来。

推荐栏目

坦克世界

进入专区>>
  • 游戏类型:网络游戏
  • 开发公司:wargaming
  • 运营公司:PC
  • 发行平台:PC

你对该游戏感兴趣吗?