二战年代瑞士自产的中型坦克Panzer 58

  Hello warriors,

  勇士们好:

  as you probably already know if you read this blog, Yuri Pasholok recently visited the armor museum in Thun (Switzerland). Another remarkable vehicle that he saw there was the Panzer 58 Swiss medium tank. Here's some info about it.

  Yuri Pasholok最近访问了瑞士图恩(Thun)的装甲博物馆。他发现了一辆值得一看的车,就是瑞士的Panzer 58中型坦克。以下是一些介绍:

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  For numerous reasons (especially economical ones), Switzerland didn't have its own armored vehicles for a very long time, opting to purchase foreign vehicles instead. Switzerland is however now only known for its mountains and banks but also for its quality arms manufacturing industry (that includes not only guns and rifles), previously however there were no real indigenous Swiss tanks. There were attempts during and after the war to build indigenous armored vehicles (such as the Nahkampfkanone project) but it never really went anywhere, since it was much cheaper to buy the Centurions or the G-13 TD's than to develop a vehicle on their own.

  基于很多理由(特别是成本上的理由),瑞士在很长时间内并没有自产的装甲车辆,而是选择了外购。虽然以前没有真正的国产坦克,但除了高山和银行,瑞士还有知名的高品质武器制造业(不仅仅是枪炮)。他们在战时和战后就一直在试图制造国产战车(例如NahKampfkanone项目),但相对于研发国产车辆,购买百人队长坦克和G-13坦克歼击车要便宜很多,所以这些项目都没有取得进展。

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  This attitude changed in the 50's. It's no secret that Swiss arms companies (Oerlikon, Solothurn) actively cooperated with the Germans in WW2. This cooperation continued after the war and it started to include tanks as well. In 1953, an alliance of German companies (Porsche, Daimler-Benz, Zahnradfabrik and Ruhrstahl) participated in a project of a new tank for India. This was the 30 ton class Indien-Panzer that was to be produced in India by the Tata company. Swiss companies participated in the development of the Indien-Panzer as well. The project was ready in 1954 but the client refused it in the end. There was nothing wrong with the tank actually, but Tata was not able to actually produce it. After some deliberations, the Indians chose to simply buy the British Centurions instead.

  但在1950年代,瑞士人的想法变了。在二战期间,瑞士的企业(厄利孔,索洛图恩)积极地和德国企业合作并不是什么秘密。这些合作延续到了战后,也包括坦克制造方面的合作。在1953年,一个德国企业联盟(保时捷、戴姆勒奔驰、采埃孚、鲁尔钢铁)参与了一项为印度研制新坦克的项目。这是一辆30吨级的印度坦克,准备交给印度的塔塔公司进行生产。项目在1954年完成,但最种客户拒绝接受。坦克本身没问题,但塔塔公司无力生产。经过几轮磋商后,印度人选择了直接购买英国的百人队长坦克。

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  But the project did not end there. In 1956, the Germans started the Europanzer project, which was based on the Indien-Panzer 30 ton tank and so it was that the Indien-Panzer evolution resulted with the AMX-30 and the Leopard 1.

  但这个项目并没有就此终结。在1956年,基于原来的30吨印度坦克方案,德国人启动了欧洲坦克项目。印度坦克方案最终演化为AMX-30和豹1。

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  The Swiss did not stay idle either. The Indien-Panzer project, not possible to be built in India, was not a problem for the advanced Swiss industry. By the time the Indien-Panzer was developed, the Swiss worked on their own medium tank, receiving the index KW.30 (Kampfwagen 30, 30 ton battle tank). It was developed by Eidgenoessische Konstruktionswerkstaette (EKW) in Thun - it was the principal Swiss military design bureau, dealing not only with armor but designing aircraft as well. The vehicle was supposed to be armed with an indigenous 90mm cannon (9cm Kanone 48) and the engine was to be German - Mercedes Benz Typ 837 (the same one as proposed for the Indien-Panzer).

  此时瑞士人也并闲坐在一边。虽然印度坦克项目无法在印度生产,但对于更先进的瑞士企业来说,这不是问题。在德国人研发印度坦克时,瑞士人也在开发自己的中型坦克,他们接到了KW.30坦克(Kampfwagen 30,30吨战斗坦克)的项目指标。由位于图恩的EKW(Eidgenoessische Konstruktionswerkstaette,译注:直译大概是联邦制造业学会之类的)进行研发,这是瑞士军工的主要设计单位,不仅设计装甲车辆,还设计飞机。原本预期采用国产的90mm主炮(9cm Kanone 48)和一台德国产的发动机,即梅赛德斯奔驰Typ 837(和印度坦克项目相同)。

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  The prototype development was delayed and it was only ready in 1957, two years after the intended start of mass production. The early mock-up was created with 5 roadwheels, the same as Indien-Panzer.

  原型车一直拖延到原定量产时间两年后,也就是1957年才完成。早期的木制模型采用了5个负重轮,和印度坦克一样。

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  The second prototype, after which the mass-produced vehicle was named, was armed with the British 20pdr gun (which was by the way license-manufactured in Switzerland as 8,4cm Panzerkanone 58). Instead of the coaxial MG, the vehicle received new 20mm Oerlikon gun (20 mm Panzerkanone 61) and the amount of roadwheels was increased to six. This is the prototype that was saved and remains in the Thun museum. After the trials, 10 pre-series vehicles were ordered, upgunned with the 105mm guns "10,5 cm Panzer Kanone 60" (a license-produced version of the British L7). These 10 pre-series vehicles were later modified to become the first Swiss mass-produced tank, the Panzer 61. 160 of those were made (this number includes the modified Panzer 58's), a rather large number for the neutral Switzerland.

  第二辆原型车(之后的被称为量产型)装备了英国20磅炮(瑞士授权生产的型号是8.4cm Panzerkanone 58)。新的20mm厄利孔机关炮取代了同轴机枪,负重轮增加到六个。这辆原型车还保存在图恩博物馆。经过测试,订购了10辆预生产型,并将主炮升级为10.5cm Panzer Kanone 60型坦克炮(英国L7的授权生产型号)。后来这10辆预生产型后来经过改装成为了瑞士第一批大规模制造的坦克,也就是Panzer 61。Panzer 61共生产了160辆(这个数字包括改装后的Panzer 58),对于中立国瑞士来说,这个数量已经很大了。

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  Design-wise Panzer 58 (and early post-war German tank projects) was heavily inspired by the American design school (roadwheels, support rollers, suspension configuration, cast hull and turret and other elements). The "traditional" German elements (interwoven suspension, welded hulls) seemed to have disappeared.

  从设计方面来,Panzer 58(还包括战后的德国坦克项目)受到美国设计风格的严重影响(负重轮、托带轮、悬挂配置,铸造车体和炮塔,以及其他元素)。而“传统”的德国元素(交错负重轮,焊接车体)则不见了。

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  The license-produced 20pdr

  授权生产的20磅炮

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