展望坦克世界欧洲线 波兰装甲力量发展史

  The development of the Polish armored forces essentially began with the allied victory of 1918. The first Polish armed forces consisted of former legion units in France with the core represented by an army under the command of Józef Haller. This army was created in France on 4.6.1917 as a result of major political pressure from Polish exiles and it fought the German forces until the end of the war.

  波兰装甲力量的发展基本上始于1918年,协约国取得一战胜利之后。第一支波兰装甲部队是在法国组建的,由一些前波兰军团(译注:波兰军团是原奥匈帝国陆军的一支独立部队)的部队所组成。其核心是约瑟夫·哈莱勒领导的一支部队。这支部队是在波兰流亡人士施加的大量政治压力下,于1917年6月4日于法国组建的。此后一直在和德国人作战,直到战争结束。

  The Polish units in France received their equipment mostly from the French military (as well as the Americans later on) and after the Great War ended, the Polish forces returning to the newly re-established Poland were well equipped (for example roughly 1000 cars and trucks and 500 motorcycles). The core of the emerging Polish armored forces however consisted of 120 French Renault FT light tanks, which were at that time the most modern armored vehicles in the world. This made the Polish military very powerful from early on – only the superpowers had comparable numbers of armor at their disposal.

  在法国的波兰部队主要使用法制装备(后期也有美国装备)。在一战结束后,装备精良的波兰武装力量(有约1000辆汽车和500辆摩托车)回到了恢复独立的波兰。新兴的波兰装甲部队装备有120辆法国的雷诺FT轻型坦克,在当时这是世界上最先进的装甲车辆。这使得早期的波兰军队非常强大,当时只有超级大国才能拥有如此规模的装甲力量。

1

  The first tank unit (1st Tank Regiment - 1 Pułk Czołgów) was formed while the men were still in France. Of its 120 Renault FT tanks, 75 were equipped with the 37mm SA18 Puteaux cannon, while the remaining 45 vehicles were equipped with 8mm Hotchkiss machineguns. Apart from the tanks, the regiment was equipped with a large number of supporting vehicles, trucks and some tractors. The regiment consisted of two tank battalions, a command section and a repair section. The first battalion had two companies of tanks and the second had three. Each company consisted of three platoons with five tanks each as well as one command platoon and one technical platoon.

  波兰人在法国时,就建立了第一支坦克部队(第一坦克团)。其拥有的120辆雷诺FT坦克中,有75辆装备了37mm SA18皮托火炮,还有45辆则装备了8mm霍奇基斯机枪。除了这些坦克,该团还装备有大量的支援车辆,卡车和一些牵引车。该团下辖两个坦克营、一个指挥部和一个维修部。第一营有两个坦克连,第二营有三个。每连含三个由5辆坦克组成的排,同时还有一个指挥排和一个技术保障排。

  Unlike other states such as Czechoslovakia, Poland had to face the aggression of a theoretically much stronger enemy right from the start during the war with Soviet Russia from 17.2.1919 to 18.10.1920. It was in this war that Polish armor was used for the first time – and not just the French tanks but also the Ford T armored cars built locally by the Polish. Poland thus became one of the few countries in the world to actually produce their own armored vehicles right from the start. The war was quite brutal with Soviet forces getting as far as Warsaw only to be thrown back by a counteroffensive and it ended with a ceasefire on 18.10.1920.

  和捷克斯洛伐克的处境不同,在1919年2月17日-1920年10月18日间的[苏][波]战争中,波兰要面对理论上强大得多的敌人。在这次战争中,波兰第一次使用了他们的装甲力量,不但有法制坦克,还有波兰本地制造的福特T型装甲车。波兰实际上是少数从一开始就能自产装甲车辆的国家。战争非常残酷,[苏][俄]军队一度打到华沙,最后被波兰人的反击击退,并于1920年10月18日停火。

1

  During that war, the Renault tanks had a significant military impact as well as a psychological one, bolstering the morale of the beleaguered Polish troops. Their use was relatively successful, some sources state only 12 Renault FT tanks were lost and so the 1st Tank Regiment still emerged from the war as an effective fighting force while the Polish managed to capture a large number of armored cars from the Soviets (over 40 vehicles). Numerous interesting examples of improvised Polish armor also came from the the fighting with the Ukrainians over Lviv and in Silesia - and so it was that Polish armor development was quite literally born from the fires of combat.

  在战争中,雷诺坦克在军事层面起到了重要作用。在心理层面亦是如此,在波兰部队被围困时,它们鼓舞了军队的士气。对这些坦克的使用相当成功,有些资料说仅损失了12辆雷诺FT坦克。所以,第一坦克团作为一支有效的打击力量,一直活跃在战斗中,并俘获了大量[苏][俄]的装甲车(超过40辆)。有一些有趣的战例,在利沃夫和乌克兰人的战斗中,以及在西里西亚的战斗中,还使用了临时改装的装甲车。所以说,波兰装甲力量是在战火中成长起来的。

  The victorious war against the Soviets, however, had certain specifics that would later return to plague the Polish military – for one, the famed Polish cavalry units were very successful in defeating Russian troops in the boggy terrain of eastern Poland, which caused the Polish military to emphasize the role of cavalry more than they should have and it gave the "old guard" officers (who did not trust modern machinery) more arguments against further mechanization. When the decision to completely mechanize the Polish army came - it was too late.

  但是,对苏战争的胜利也在某些方面埋下了祸根,在后来带来了灭顶之灾。比如:在波兰东部的沼泽地带,著名的波兰骑兵成功的击败了[苏][俄]部队。这导致了波兰军队过于强调骑兵的地位,并给“保守派”军官(那些不相信现代机械的人)更多反对进一步机械化的理由。等到波兰陆军决定全面机械化时,为时已晚。

  When all the fighting ended, the Polish army had – apart from roughly 100 remaining Renault FT tanks – a large number of various captured vehicles. Keeping such a large number of types operational proved to be difficult and resulted later on in attempts to unify the armored vehicles by license-producing the wz.28 halftrack (originally the French Citroën Kengresse) and the wz.29 armored car. It would however take the entire twenties to develop the industry enough to fully support any indigenous Polish armor production.

  在战争结束时,波兰陆军除了拥有剩下的100辆雷诺FT坦克,还缴获了大量各种型号的车辆。要同时保有如此众多型号的车辆被证明是困难的。因此,后来曾试图通过授权生产wz.28半履带车(原来是法国的雪铁龙-克雷赛半履带车)以及wz.29装甲车来统一型号。随着1920年代的工业发展,完全足够支持波兰在本国生产装甲车辆。

1

  Between the wars, the aging Renault FT was still the most important Polish armored vehicle. It was supplemented in 1931 with the purchase of several Vickers Mk.E British export tanks (an excellent design in its own right). The main armored unit was still the 1st Tank Regiment, which had its HQ first in Żurawica and later (from 1930) in Poznań.

  在两次大战之间的日子里,老旧的雷诺FT仍然是波兰最重要的装甲车辆。在1931年,又采购了一些英国的出口型坦克,也就是维克斯Mk.E坦克(一种优秀的独立设计)来进行补充。最重要的装甲部队仍然是第一坦克团,其总部一开始设在祖拉维察,后来(1930年)迁到了波兹南。

  Peacetime allowed the Polish to start properly developing their armor in earnest. One of the first places where armored cars and tanks were repaired was the "Central Car Works" ("Centralne Warsztaty Samochodowe") company in Warsaw. This company initially repaired and maintained the existing fleet of Polish armor (the cars at first and the Renault FT tanks a bit later) but from the mid-twenties, its developers started working on indigenous Polish armor projects. In 1928, the company was transformed and renamed – "Państwowe Zakłady Inżynieryjne", better known as PZInż. PZInż in time became the predominant (monopolized) developer of Polish armor, building tanks and other military vehicles as well as cars for civilian use.

  在和平时期,波兰人开始以认真的态度发展他们的装甲力量。在华沙的“中央汽车厂”是第一家从事装甲车和坦克维修的公司。这家公司一开始只是为现有的装甲车辆进行修理和维护(一开始是汽车,后来是雷诺FT坦克)。但从1920年代中期开始,他们启动了本国的装甲车辆项目。在1928年,这家公司改制并改名为“国家机器制造厂”,更为人所知的名称是PZInż。在当时,PZInż是波兰最主要的(垄断)装甲车辆研制单位,制造坦克或其他军用车辆,同时也生产民用车辆。

  Another milestone in Polish armor development was the establishment of the Warsaw Technical Institute with a department dedicated to armor development along with the founding of a testing military unit attached to it (operating from the Modlin proving grounds). Multiple vehicles were tested there in the early 30's including the French Renault NC, Carden Loyd tankettes and Fiat cars. In the future, all Polish armored designs would be tested in Modlin.

  波兰装甲力量发展的另一个里程碑是华沙科学技术研究院的成立,其下有个部门专门负责装甲车辆的研制,并有一支附属的测试部队(在莫德林测试场工作)。在1930年代早期,在那里测试过多种车辆,包括法国的雷诺NC坦克,卡登-洛依德超轻型坦克和菲亚特汽车。在后来,所有的波兰装甲车辆都是在莫德林进行测试的。

  From the early 30's, the Polish army went through a motorization and mechanization program, obtaining hundreds of vehicles (including armor). The program, while adequate for the conditions in Poland, did not mean the Polish army was heavily mechanized by the end of the 30's. Instead the entire military was still mostly hippo-mobile and the amount of vehicles being built (including high numbers of armored vehicles) did not make the Polish armored forces the mailed fist of the army because, unlike the Germans, the Polish (as well as many other armies at that time) did not organize their armor into separate independent forces. Instead, they attached it to existing cavalry and infantry units, watering down its striking power.

  从1930年代早期开始,波兰陆军开始了一项摩托化和机械化的计划,获得了数百辆车(包括装甲车辆)。虽然这项计划符合于当时波兰的国情,但并不意味着波兰在1930年代末实现了大规模机械化。相反,整个军队仍然是主要靠马匹机动。虽然制造了大量车辆,但波兰的装甲力量并未捏成一个拳头。这是因为,和德国不一样,波兰(当时很多其他国家也是如此)并未将他们的装甲力量编制为独立的部队,而是骑兵和步兵部队的附属品,稀释了打击力量。

  Most of the Polish designs from the 30's were also either quite light or various license-produced foreign designs and their variants. Nevertheless, it was all still quite an achievement: Poland – unlike its southern neighbor, Czechoslovakia – did not inherit the massive industry from before the war and its territory was ravaged by multiple conflicts. To build an entire indigenous armor-producing industry from scratch certainly was an accomplishment.

  从1930年代起,波兰要么只是设计些非常轻型的车辆,要么是授权生产的各种外国设计及其变形。但这仍然是一项了不起的成就。不像他南面的邻居,捷克斯洛伐克,波兰并未继承战前留下的大量工业设施,其国土也饱经战火。白手起家建立完整的装甲车辆制造业是很了不起的。

  Throughout the 30’s, until the war, the most common Polish armored vehicles were the TK series tankettes (with over 500 built). Most of these tiny vehicles were equipped with light machineguns and were useless in tank versus tank combat but a few were armed with a potent 20mm cannon and, on several occasions, the easily concealable TK tankettes were capable of wreaking havoc upon the German invaders, knocking out even the advanced German Panzer III and Panzer IV medium tanks. Possibly the most famous such battle took place on 18.9.1939 when Roman Orlik, using his 20mm-equipped tankette, knocked out two Panzer 35(t)s and one Panzer IV, killing Viktor, the German crown prince of Ratibor, who commanded the vehicle. Despite such heroic actions, the tankettes as a whole did not do very well and after the fall of Poland, they were relegated to training duties (in German hands of course).

  从整个1930年代到战争爆发,波兰最常见的装甲车辆是TK系列超轻型坦克(共制造了超过500辆)。这种微型车辆大部分装备的是轻机枪,对坦克作战时无用。但还有一些装备的是更强的20mm火炮。有很多次,隐蔽良好的TK超轻型坦克给德国人造成了严重伤亡,甚至击毁了先进的德国三号和四号中型坦克。可能是其中最著名的一场战斗发生于1939年9月18日。当时,罗曼·奥利克使用装备20mm火炮的超轻型坦克,击毁两辆35(t)坦克和一辆四号坦克,**了担任车长的拉蒂博亲王储维克多。虽然有如此英勇的战绩,但总体上,超轻型坦克的作战效果不佳,在波兰陷落之后,仅被用于训练(当然是德国人)。

1

  The Polish light tanks were somewhat better. The 7TP was an improved license-produced version of the Vickers Mk.E with some interesting upgrades, possibly the most notable of which was the Gundlach tank periscope. After the introduction of this device to the Polish 7TP tanks, the British copied it and used it in many of their wartime designs. The 7TPs and the French Renault R35 light tanks, although inferior to the German armor and Czechoslovak tanks in German service, could still put up quite a fight. Apart from these mass-produced vehicles, the Polish also had a number of promising prototypes, including the improved 7TP version (sometimes incorrectly referred to as 9TP) and the Christie-based 10TP that resembled the Soviet BT series (only more powerful). Just before the war, the Polish forces were equipped with:

  161 Vickers Mk.E and 7TP tanks

  50 Renault R35 light tanks

  102 Renault FT light tanks

  100 wz.29 and wz.34 armored cars

  561 TK and TKS tankettes

  波兰的轻型坦克则稍微好点。7TP坦克是授权生产的维克斯Mk.E的升级型,有一些有趣的升级。或许最值得注意的是冈拉克潜望镜。在7TP坦克装上这种潜望镜以后,英国人对其进行了仿制,在他们很多战时的设计上也有用到。虽然不如德国人用的德国造和捷克造坦克,但7TP和法制雷诺R35坦克还是颇具威力的。除了这些量产的车辆外,波兰还有一些很有前途的原型车,包括7TP的改进型(有时被不正确的称为9TP),还有采用克里斯蒂悬挂的10TP坦克,类似于苏联BT系列坦克(但更为强大)。在战前,波兰军队装备有:

  161辆维克斯Mk.E和7TP坦克

  50辆雷诺R35轻型坦克

  102辆雷诺FT轻型坦克

  110辆wz.29和wz.34装甲车

  561辆TK和TKS超轻型坦克

1

  Despite the vehicle numbers and the bravery of the defenders of Poland, the country fell to the relentless onslaught of German invaders from the west and their Soviet allies from the east, putting an end to indigenous Polish armor development for almost a decade. After the Nazis turned on their former Soviet partners, exile units of Polish troops (including armored forces) were formed in the Soviet Union and two hundred thousand Polish soldiers equipped with Soviet weaponry helped to defeat the horrors of fascism by fighting alongside the Red Army on its victorious march to Berlin. In the west, exiled Polish units fought the Germans first in France and in Africa and then, under British command and on British vehicles, in Normandy and further on.

  虽然波兰有众多英勇的抵抗者,但在西线德国人和他们东线的盟友苏联人无情的打击之下,波兰陷落,这也给波兰装甲力量发展带来近十年的空白。在纳粹德国和他的前伙伴苏联翻脸之后,在苏联建立了由流亡者组成的波兰部队(包括装甲部队),20万使用苏联装备的波兰战士在向柏林的胜利大进军中,和苏联红军并肩战斗,协助打败了法西斯德国。在西线,波兰流亡者部队先是在法国,然后在非洲抗击德军,后来在英国人的指挥下,使用英国战车,参加了在诺曼底及随后的战斗。

1

  The Polish units in exile were known for their bravery and tenacity. One of the best such units was the Polish 1st Armoured Division under General Stanisław Maczek – an extremely capable leader who battled the Germans in Poland, in France and then with the British all the way to Germany.

  波兰流亡者部队以其坚韧不拔和英勇无畏著称。其中最出色的部队之一当数斯坦尼斯拉夫·马切克将军指挥的第一装甲师。他是一位出色的领导人,曾在波兰、法国和德国人战斗,并随英国人一路攻入德国。

  After the war, Polish armor development slowly resumed with one of the first mass-produced post-war Polish tanks being a locally modified version of the Soviet T-34 called T-34-85M2. The differences were mostly technical and the turret was flatter. Development did not stop there and Poland eventually produced a significant number of various Soviet tank versions as well as interesting proposals for very modern battle tanks – but that is a story for another time.

  在战后,波兰装甲力量慢慢开始恢复。战后波兰第一种量产坦克是本地化的苏联T-34,被称为T-34-85M2。大多数是工艺上的差异,炮塔更为扁平。但波兰装甲力量的发展并未就此停步。实际上,波兰生产了大量不同型号的苏联坦克,同时还有非常先进的坦克方案,但这就是另外一个故事了。

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